Strategies to Motivate Struggling Readers in Middle Age
In most middle-aged schools across the globe, struggling readers are characteristically disengaged from the real attitudes of reading. Other than low self-esteem in reading, such students normally get lower grades in terms performance index in class. However, the basic principles of reading are based on its linkage with the contents. In other words, when reading amongst the low graders is disconnected from the content, it becomes so tedious for them and hence results in a negative attitude towards academics. In other instances, such students regard textbooks as ‘formidable.' Therefore, the students are usually expected to respond to each character of the text through outlining or criticism rather than their interpretations. This paper, written with the help of professional writers hired via one outlines the motivational procedures and practices that Middle-Grade Teachers can explore to motivate the middle-Grade children who experience problems while reading during class sessions.
The perception of ‘the teacher control' class lessons has affected the middle school children through curtailing their freedom in class, a case that is entirely different elementary schools. To aid the process and strategies for motivation the struggling readers in Middle age, the teachers can apply six classroom ethics which include;
Constructing specific goals of knowledge as the foundation of the reading instructions
Connecting student’s reading experiences through real-world interactions
Issues the learners with learning instruments such as real books and other related materials
Issuing choices amongst the many learning materials
Rendering strategies for teaching instructions
Emphasizing on collaboration on the various aspects of learning (Guthrie & Davis, 2003).
To acknowledge the essence of this paper, it’s proper to ask ourselves the question on who the struggling readers are. Having understood that the distinction of a problem affects the quality and nature of solutions to problems, it’s essential to discuss the aspects and other motivational factors influencing middle age readers. Secondly, there are classroom practices that constitute barriers to the struggling readers in the middle schools (Gottfried, 1985). Lastly, after identifying and explaining the classroom cultures that perhaps hinders the learning ability of the readers, it’s essential to offer solutions based on motivational theory, which is the fundamental aspect of the proposed engagement.
In the modern world, struggling readers are normally considered as low achievers. In other words, they are deemed to be lacking cognitive competencies. Such competencies include studying skills, reading fluency, reading comprehension and study skills. The above experimental features are reviewed and defined to be the primary attributes of a struggling reader (Vacca & Vacca, 2005). It’s, therefore, essential to acknowledge that the notion of a reader who is struggling must be emphasized to affirm that the learner is purely discriminated from literacy (Guthrie & Davis, 2003).
The motivational aspect is always a common characteristic in most of the struggling readers. Due to low self-confidence they have, they are likely to develop self-efficacy (Guthrie & Davis, 2003). Nevertheless, they are more liable to be lacking confidence in their reading ability to read or improve their reading standards. In other words, struggling readers are more of being extrinsically motivated than the way they are motivated intrinsically. Most probably, their notion of the conditions of reading is meeting the expectation of their teachers. In this case, they do not read for self-enjoyment and thus do not seek curiosity through their reading materials unless they are forced to do so.
Gottfried (1985) argued that students who got promotions from Grade 4 to 7 reported a decline in intrinsic motivation. Just for a recall purpose, intrinsic motivation refers to the scenario in which a student reads alone for the purpose of self-interest or expressing a preferred challenge for a given text that would create room for thinking and problem (Gottfried, 1985). Apparently, as the instinct motivation decreased as outlined above (students making a transition to middle school from elementary schools), the learners become more oriented to completion, grades, and personal competitions than in elementary schools. The process, however, is shockingly stronger for the low achievers. In other words, those struggling for excellence are prone to losing their intrinsic motivation than those having self-confidence and believe that they are competent (Guthrie and Davis, 2003).
The Model of Engagement
As noted previously, the students struggling in Middle school for reading purposes are characteristically disengaged from the academic literacy. In this manner, they are not only disaffected by the readings of the school but also lack cognitive skills (Guthrie & Davis, 2003). The solution to this challenge is through redeveloping, which is an alternative and an essential way of acquiring the reading skills (cognitive) during comprehension readings. In this case, there are two crucial ways for developing motivations in the struggling middle school readers. The first is through connecting the current text to instinct motivation. The second one involves the building of elaborate motivational ability for reading.
The initial idea is about connecting an activity that is instinctually motivating to physical activities and then generalizing the motivation to contemporary texts. For instance, through a process of successive expansion, a behavior that is intrinsically motivated can be generated through new texts and new topics (Guthrie & Davis, 2003). Try to figure out how a student would be amazed or mesmerized by seeing a big snake placed on a classroom table. When they are exposed to such real world issues, the students would be more fascinated, more attentive and would ask questions more oftenly. Having more information about the snake laid on the table would be generated through reading more texts, students would be anxious to do so through reading the relevant literature materials containing such information. In this case, the students would have developed the desire, motivation or interest to gather more information through reading. Additionally, materials that would give relevant information about the reptile would be as fascinating just as the reptile itself. Furthermore, related topics such as those of hawks would generate motivational experiences to the learner and thus transferred as a reading habit. When they have exhausted a bright top as required, students become motivated through events to read more domains as construed as science (Guthrie & Davis, 2003).
Another motivational approach for the struggling readers was developed by Ryan and Deci (2000). In the theory, the duo argued that through internalization, the students acquired the motivational aspects of the adults. Internalization simply refers to the process of taking a goal or value from a relevant other to oneself (Guthrie & Davis, 2003). In other words, when a senior person such as a parent, pastor or a fellow student communicates the essence of reading, it’s taken positively into the minds of the struggling reader. In this case, the learner would tend to spend time reading not only because of self-interest but to the relevance of future success. Now, at a more highly constituted internalization level, the reader shall have gained personal reasons to read that may perhaps include learning in a contents or grades. In this case, the learner has transformed learning into whom he is. Based on his personal objectives and reasons, the student would now deploy more efforts to enhance his efficiency in learning (Gottfried, 1985).
In summary, it’s important to acknowledge that middle school is an age of transition. Students emerge from elementary learning environments to a relatively child-centered learning environment having a single teacher to lay the foundations of reading. They (students) are expected to study complex contents without sufficient support from their tutors to read the complex texts alone. In this case the experience isolation and minimal choices and would feel of being incompetent to learn. This pervasiveness of the growing disengagements and barriers of the learners are proportioned to crisis approach. If learners were to navigate such transition into a high school, middle school, and workplace, they would require absolute determination to their linkage in reading. One of the fundamental approaches is the use of engagement models of instruction by the teachers. The tutors who apply and sustain such frameworks assist learners in believing in themselves hence gaining skills as readers. The newfound identity is essential in helping the students to identify themselves with the literary community.